would be preferred, especially when presented in a prefilled syringe. Sufficient stability information is required to achieve liquid formulations as most biopharmaceuticals have limited stability in liquid state. It is also important to understand that product stability in prefilled syringe may be different from the same formulation filled in vials.
is useful when better product stability is required. In order to achieve good lyophilized formulations, the following additional formulation factors need to be considered above and beyond storage stability:
- Efficient lyophilization cycle
- Elegant appearance of the lyophilized cake
- Good stability during the freeze-drying process
- Easy, rapid and thorough reconstitution
can be used when multiple dosing from a single vial is beneficial. In general, the addition of preservative(s), regardless of the type and amount utilized, significantly changes the stability profiles of proteins. In some extreme cases, visible precipitation and aggregation have been reported from the introduction of these materials. Therefore, the effect of various preservatives on the stability of protein should be carefully examined. Other experiments are also required to qualify a protein product for multi-dose formulation capabilities. The most notable tests include analyses for antimicrobial preservative effectiveness and stopper resealing. As proteins have limited stability in the presence of preservatives, dual chamber syringes or dual chamber cartridges containing bacteriostatic diluents are routinely used.